# Ibex - Quantitative methods for cyber-physical programming

## Project's description

Thanks to advances in computational power and miniaturisation, software is increasingly embedded in infrastructures and industrial processes to boost efficiency, safety, and production. In this context it is now qualified as

**cyber-physical**to emphasise its tight interaction with physical processes (such as velocity, movement, and temperature), and to sign a shift from usual software engineering practices to a more multifaceted view that combines computer science, control theory, and analysis. There has been important progress in the development of mathematical foundations for cyber-physical systems. Existing results typically take the form of a

**hybrid process algebra**, which add the notion of a differential equation to an existing, well-established process algebra. However, the fact that computational processes are intermixed with physical ones raises challenging aspects that severely hinder these results as foundations for an engineering discipline of cyber-physical software. Specifically, the latter bring an inherent layer of

**uncertainty**, due to noise in sensors and actuators. Moreover, they require notions of

**behavioural distance**for realistically comparing two systems in an algebraic, rigorous way. The goal of this project is thus to develop the mathematical foundations of cyber-physical programming by taking into account the quantitative aspects discussed above: uncertainty and behavioural distance. Note that our goal is

**not**develop a specific programming language for cyber-physical systems, but rather to focus on core, semantic foundations and calculi which will then serve as basis for developing such languages.

## Research team

## Publications

Luc Edixhoven, Sung-Shik Jongmans, José Proença, and Ilaria Castellani.
Branching pomsets: design, expressiveness and applications to
choreographies.
*Journal of Logical and Algebraic Methods in Programming*,
136:100919, 2024.
[ bib |
DOI |
http |
.pdf ]

Inês Dias. An interpreter for a concurrent quantum language. Master's thesis, University of Minho, January 2024. [ bib | .pdf ]

Fredrik Dahlqvist and Renato Neves.
The syntactic side of autonomous categories enriched over
generalised metric spaces.
*Logical Methods in Computer Science*, Volume 19, Issue 4,
December 2023.
[ bib |
DOI |
http |
.pdf ]

Ricardo Correia. Simulation of hybrid systems regulated by newtonian mechanics. Master's thesis, University of Minho, December 2023. [ bib | .pdf ]

Rui Carvalho. Adding uncertainty to real-time programming. Master's thesis, University of Minho, September 2023. [ bib | .pdf ]

Maurice H. ter Beek, Guillermina Cledou, Rolf Hennicker, and José
Proença.
Can we communicate? using dynamic logic to verify team automata.
In Marsha Chechik, Joost-Pieter Katoen, and Martin Leucker,
editors, *Formal Methods - 25th International Symposium, FM 2023,
Lübeck, Germany, March 6-10, 2023, Proceedings*, volume 14000 of *
Lecture Notes in Computer Science*, pages 122--141. Springer, 2023.
[ bib |
DOI |
http |
.pdf ]

Fredrik Dahlqvist and Renato Neves.
A complete v-equational system for graded lambda-calculus.
In Marie Kerjean and Paul Blain Levy, editors, *Proceedings of
the 39th Conference on the Mathematical Foundations of Programming Semantics,
MFPS XXXIX, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA, June 21-23, 2023*,
volume 3 of *EPTICS*. EpiSciences, 2023.
[ bib |
DOI |
http |
.pdf ]

Juliana Cunha, Alexandre Madeira, and Luís Soares Barbosa.
Structured specification of paraconsistent transition systems.
In Hossein Hojjat and Erika Ábrahám, editors, *
Fundamentals of Software Engineering - 10th International Conference, FSEN
2023, Tehran, Iran, May 4-5, 2023, Revised Selected Papers*, volume 14155 of
*Lecture Notes in Computer Science*, pages 1--17. Springer, 2023.
[ bib |
DOI |
http |
.pdf ]

Roland Carl Backhouse and José Nuno Oliveira.
On difunctions.
*J. Log. Algebraic Methods Program.*, 134:100878, 2023.
[ bib |
DOI |
http |
.pdf ]

Maurice H. ter Beek, Rolf Hennicker, and José Proença.
Realisability of global models of interaction.
In Erika Ábrahám, Clemens Dubslaff, and Silvia
Lizeth Tapia Tarifa, editors, *Theoretical Aspects of Computing - ICTAC
2023 - 20th International Colloquium, Lima, Peru, December 4-8, 2023,
Proceedings*, volume 14446 of *Lecture Notes in Computer Science*, pages
236--255. Springer, 2023.
[ bib |
DOI |
http |
.pdf ]

José Proença.
Overview on constrained multiparty synchronisation in team automata.
In Javier Cámara and Sung-Shik Jongmans, editors, *Formal
Aspects of Component Software - 19th International Conference, FACS 2023,
Virtual Event, October 19-20, 2023, Revised Selected Papers*, volume 14485 of
*Lecture Notes in Computer Science*. Springer, 2023.
[ bib |
.pdf ]

José Proença, David Pereira, Giann Spilere Nandi, Sina Borrami, and
Jonas Melchert.
Spreadsheet-based configuration of families of real-time
specifications.
In Maurice H. ter Beek and Clemens Dubslaff, editors, *
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Trends in Configurable Systems Analysis,
TiCSA@ETAPS 2023, Paris, France, 23rd April 2023*, volume 392 of *
EPTCS*, pages 27--39, 2023.
[ bib |
DOI |
http |
.pdf ]

José Proença and Luc Edixhoven.
Caos: A reusable scala web animator of operational semantics.
In Sung-Shik Jongmans and Antónia Lopes, editors, *Coordination
Models and Languages - 25th IFIP WG 6.1 International Conference,
COORDINATION 2023, Held as Part of the 18th International Federated
Conference on Distributed Computing Techniques, DisCoTec 2023, Portugal, June
19-23, 2023, Proceedings*, volume 13908 of *Lecture Notes in Computer
Science*, pages 163--171. Springer, 2023.
[ bib |
DOI |
http |
.pdf ]

Kai Li, Xin Yuan, Jingjing Zheng, Wei Ni, and Mohsen Guizani.
Exploring adversarial graph autoencoders to manipulate federated
learning in the internet of things.
In *2023 International Wireless Communications and Mobile
Computing (IWCMC)*, pages 898--903, 2023.
[ bib |
DOI |
.pdf ]

André Sequeira, Luís Paulo Santos, and Luís Soares Barbosa.
Policy gradients using variational quantum circuits.
*Quantum Mach. Intell.*, 5(1):1--15, 2023.
[ bib |
DOI |
http |
.pdf ]

Luís Soares Barbosa and Alexandre Madeira.
Capturing qubit decoherence through paraconsistent transition
systems.
In Shigeru Chiba, Youyou Cong, and Elisa Gonzalez Boix, editors, *
Companion Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on the Art,
Science, and Engineering of Programming, Programming 2023, Tokyo, Japan,
March 13-17, 2023*, pages 109--110. ACM, 2023.
[ bib |
DOI |
.pdf ]

Juliana Cunha, Alexandre Madeira, and Luís Soares Barbosa.
Stepwise development of paraconsistent processes.
In Cristina David and Meng Sun, editors, *Theoretical Aspects of
Software Engineering - 17th International Symposium, TASE 2023, Bristol,
UK, July 4-6, 2023, Proceedings*, volume 13931 of *Lecture Notes in
Computer Science*, pages 327--343. Springer, 2023.
[ bib |
DOI |
http |
.pdf ]

Jaime Santos, Daniel Figueiredo, and Alexandre Madeira.
iddl2dl - interval syntax to dl.
In Cristina David and Meng Sun, editors, *Theoretical Aspects of
Software Engineering - 17th International Symposium, TASE 2023, Bristol,
UK, July 4-6, 2023, Proceedings*, volume 13931 of *Lecture Notes in
Computer Science*, pages 240--247. Springer, 2023.
[ bib |
DOI |
http |
.pdf ]

Kai Li, Jingjing Zheng, Xin Yuan, Wei Ni, Ozgur B. Akan, and H. Vincent Poor. Data-agnostic model poisoning against federated learning: A graph autoencoder approach, 2023. [ bib | arXiv | .pdf ]

Luc Edixhoven, Sung-Shik Jongmans, José Proença, and Guillermina
Cledou.
Branching pomsets for choreographies.
In Clément Aubert, Cinzia Di Giusto, Larisa Safina, and Alceste
Scalas, editors, *Proceedings 15th Interaction and Concurrency
Experience, ICE 2022, Lucca, Italy, 17th June 2022*, volume 365 of *
EPTCS*, pages 37--52, 2022.
[ bib |
DOI |
http |
.pdf ]

Sung-Shik Jongmans and José Proença.
ST4MP: A blueprint of multiparty session typing for multilingual
programming.
In Tiziana Margaria and Bernhard Steffen, editors, *Leveraging
Applications of Formal Methods, Verification and Validation. Verification
Principles - 11th International Symposium, ISoLA 2022, Rhodes, Greece,
October 22-30, 2022, Proceedings, Part I*, volume 13701 of *Lecture
Notes in Computer Science*, pages 460--478. Springer, 2022.
[ bib |
DOI |
http |
.pdf ]

Pedro Silva, José N. Oliveira, Nuno Macedo, and Alcino Cunha.
Quantitative relational modelling with qalloy.
In Abhik Roychoudhury, Cristian Cadar, and Miryung Kim, editors, *
Proceedings of the 30th ACM Joint European Software Engineering Conference
and Symposium on the Foundations of Software Engineering, ESEC/FSE 2022,
Singapore, Singapore, November 14-18, 2022*, pages 885--896. ACM, 2022.
[ bib |
DOI |
http |
.pdf ]

Leandro Gomes, Alexandre Madeira, and Luís Soares Barbosa.
Weighted synchronous automata.
*Math. Struct. Comput. Sci.*, 32(9):1234--1253, 2022.
[ bib |
DOI |
http ]

Ana Cruz, Alexandre Madeira, and Luís Soares Barbosa.
A logic for paraconsistent transition systems.
In Andrzej Indrzejczak and Michal Zawidzki, editors, *Proceedings
of the 10th International Conference on Non-Classical Logics. Theory and
Applications, NCL 2022, LódŹ, Poland, 14-18 March 2022*,
volume 358 of *EPTCS*, pages 270--284, 2022.
[ bib |
DOI |
http |
.pdf ]

Ana Cruz, Alexandre Madeira, and Luís Soares Barbosa.
Paraconsistent transition systems.
In Daniele Nantes-Sobrinho and Pascal Fontaine, editors, *
Proceedings 17th International Workshop on Logical and Semantic Frameworks
with Applications, LSFA 2022, Belo Horizonte, Brazil (hybrid), 23-24
September 2022*, volume 376 of *EPTCS*, pages 3--15, 2022.
[ bib |
DOI |
http |
.pdf ]

José Nuno Oliveira.
Why adjunctions matter - A functional programmer perspective.
In Alexandre Madeira and Manuel A. Martins, editors, *Recent
Trends in Algebraic Development Techniques - 26th IFIP WG 1.3
International Workshop, WADT 2022, Aveiro, Portugal, June 28-30, 2022,
Revised Selected Papers*, volume 13710 of *Lecture Notes in Computer
Science*, pages 25--59. Springer, 2022.
[ bib |
DOI |
http |
.pdf ]

*This file was generated by
bibtex2html 1.99.*

## Dissemination

Invited talk at C. S. Theory Seminar, Tallinn. | An Internal Language for Categories Enriched over Generalised Metric Spaces | Jan. 2022 |

Invited talk at CMCS'22, Munich. | Coalgebra meets Hybrid Systems | Abr. 2022 |

Ibex workshop as part of WADT'22, Aveiro. | Proceedings | Jun. 2022 |

Invited talk at FACS'22, online. | Semantics for Hybrid Components - Categorical Tools and Techniques | Nov. 2022 |

Ibex workshop as part of Word Logic Day, Aveiro. | Website | Jan. 2023 |

Invited talk at CMUC, Coimbra. | Higher-order quantitative equational theories | May 2023 |

Ibex workshop, Braga. | --- | Jun. 2023 |

Lecture at the summer school VVML, Genova. | Slides | Jul. 2023 |

## Previous related projects

## Acknowledgements

Photo (of the Iberian Ibex) by Arturo de Frías. This work is financed by National Funds through FCT - Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, I.P. (Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) within the project IBEX, with reference 10.54499/PTDC/CCI-COM/4280/2021.